Sunday, July 25, 2010

Welcome to the Systems Management Course, IIITD, 2010

This blog is intended to provide a forum for students enrolled in the Systems Management Course for 2010 to share interesting posts related to the course. The objective is also to create a reference location that acts as a resource for interesting utilities at one single place. We would encourage discussions on any blog posts pointing to discrepancies in the post or adding further resources that complement the related knowledge.

Happy Blogging!


  1. lecture 1 was very good,thanks for the display of the internal parts of the computer

  2. Different RAM Types and its uses


    The type of RAM doesn't matter nearly as much as how much of it you've got, but using plain old SDRAM memory today will slow you down. There are three main types of RAM: SDRAM, DDR and Rambus DRAM.

    SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM)
    Almost all systems used to ship with 3.3 volt, 168-pin SDRAM DIMMs. SDRAM is not an extension of older EDO DRAM but a new type of DRAM altogether. SDRAM started out running at 66 MHz, while older fast page mode DRAM and EDO max out at 50 MHz. SDRAM is able to scale to 133 MHz (PC133) officially, and unofficially up to 180MHz or higher. As processors get faster, new generations of memory such as DDR and RDRAM are required to get proper performance.

    DDR (Double Data Rate SDRAM)
    DDR basically doubles the rate of data transfer of standard SDRAM by transferring data on the up and down tick of a clock cycle. DDR memory operating at 333MHz actually operates at 166MHz * 2 (aka PC333 / PC2700) or 133MHz*2 (PC266 / PC2100). DDR is a 2.5 volt technology that uses 184 pins in its DIMMs. It is incompatible with SDRAM physically, but uses a similar parallel bus, making it easier to implement than RDRAM, which is a different technology.

    Rambus DRAM (RDRAM)
    Despite it's higher price, Intel has given RDRAM it's blessing for the consumer market, and it will be the sole choice of memory for Intel's Pentium 4. RDRAM is a serial memory technology that arrived in three flavors, PC600, PC700, and PC800. PC800 RDRAM has double the maximum throughput of old PC100 SDRAM, but a higher latency. RDRAM designs with multiple channels, such as those in Pentium 4 motherboards, are currently at the top of the heap in memory throughput, especially when paired with PC1066 RDRAM memory.

    DIMMs vs. RIMMs
    DRAM comes in two major form factors: DIMMs and RIMMS.

    DIMMs are 64-bit components, but if used in a motherboard with a dual-channel configuration (like with an Nvidia nForce chipset) you must pair them to get maximum performance. So far there aren't many DDR chipset that use dual-channels. Typically, if you want to add 512 MB of DIMM memory to your machine, you just pop in a 512 MB DIMM if you've got an available slot. DIMMs for SDRAM and DDR are different, and not physically compatible. SDRAM DIMMs have 168-pins and run at 3.3 volts, while DDR DIMMs have 184-pins and run at 2.5 volts.

    RIMMs use only a 16-bit interface but run at higher speeds than DDR. To get maximum performance, Intel RDRAM chipsets require the use of RIMMs in pairs over a dual-channel 32-bit interface. You have to plan more when upgrading and purchasing RDRAM.

  3. How does one find out which RAM one is using?

    I right clicked on My Computer and selected properties. All I got was-

    Intel(R) Core(TM) 2 Duo CPU
    E7500 @ 2.93 GHz, 1.96 GB of RAM
    Physical Address Extension

  4. i had the same problem as shayan

  5. my computer configurations are-
    intel(R) pentium(R) D CPU 3.00Ghz, 2.49RAM
    physical address extension.

  6. sir, i cud not see all the components u brought in the class. can u bring them again in the next class? ur blogging idea is very innovative.

  7. sir, i have to share something about this course.
    The management of the information systems is very important both for security reasons and to ensure that all information is provided to the various departments within the company and to outside sources as required. In addition for many companies the information systems manager may also monitor online sales, assist with web page development as well as oversee email responses to customers, live messenger communication with clients, or may provide tech support to other companies using the services of their company.

  8. @Mr. Amarjeet..
    Thanx so much sir for this innovative platform..u rock..

    @shayan and praneet..
    You people are really bugged up like i was..well as far as i know,Windows does not provide any utility which tells us our ram type and the no. of channels..or the ram only gives the ram size..
    BUT,that doesn't mean dere's no such utility at all...i found it out
    just log on to the site and download the CPU-Z software as per ur windows nd processor...its a gr8 utility ...will tell u all the info. that amarjeet sir asked for..even much more den try..
    Hoping for some stars...lolz
    Arjun Ahuja

  9. continuation to the last post..

    u can even find out the manufacturer of ur ram..i got to kno mine was a hyundai manufactured ddr2 will give u much much more den wat even bios can offer at best..even bios only specifies mode and size..

  10. If you're on Linux, look at the manpages for the program dmidecode. It should be able to tell you almost everything you need to know about your hardware, limited to what the BIOS has determined. You can check out which DMI ID corresponds to which device, and then figure out which one's your RAM.

  11. @Arjun..
    plz also go thru the utility i've posted.It gives u almost each and everything..much more den bios does..even some dynamically changing data relating to ur core ..if u hav a dual core..

  12. @Arjun Ahuja:
    Please go through dmidecode and understand what it does. Most probably, even the utility that you've posted about works using DMI tables or SMBIOS. And if you want data about the CPU, a simple cat on /proc/cpuinfo should give you everything about the cpu.

    Also, please note the differences in the platforms. My post specifically targets Linux systems. I do not have access to a Windows machine at the moment to try out that utility.

    Perhaps, as an SM project, you can explore how these utilities work. An in depth analysis would be good. If you're interested in taking this up as a project, please ask Amarjeet sir if this project is suitable.

  13. Everest Ultimate Edition helped me find out my RAM type Hope this link helps

  14. How in this world can I post a new thread.?

  15. This comment has been removed by the author.

  16. @Arjun,
    Its actually a great idea..thank you so much..
    Even i was thinking yesterday night how dese utilities would have gathered this data..i would actually like to do this project..i'll get back to u and amarjeet sir and discuss this further.

    And also,i'd like to thank u for alternate nd easier ways u provided to get the cpu info.Appreciate your efforts a lot..

  17. can i use ubuntu on windows? arjun thanks for the site u gave. i checked and its definitely a great utility. but half the info given there i cud not understand.

  18. So I'm just posting a comment..
    Rams;How do you recognize 'em?
    There are many different types of RAM which have appeared over the years and it is often difficult to know the difference between them.So its a sincere effort to make my fellow mates familiar with this thingy..

    FPM RAM-Its just "FAST PAGE MODE."It was used before 1995 (Just 3 years after the birth of most of us) so studying abt it is just irrelevant.
    Its abt 89mm long and has abt 3 IC's I guess, it looks lyk
    EDO RAM-EXTENDED DATA OUT.Again its not used any more so I'll give just the basic idea.Its rebuild on FPM RAM in what you call HYPER PAGE MODE.Its abt 110mm long and has arnd 12 IC's.It looks lyk
    SDRAM-"SYNCHRONISED DYNAMIC RAM."ITs thrice as fast as FPM and twice as EDO(Abt 133Mhz).Its 130 mm long and has abt 8 IC's but has three different intrfaces..It means two gaps in the connector.It looks lyk
    There are three of 'em:
    1.DDR I
    It has 8 IC's but onlw 2 INterfaces..
    2.DDR II
    It has comparatively smaller IC's
    same in number and two interfaces again.
    3.DDR III
    There's just a way around to recognize these..They are always covered with plastic shells with fancy brand names, though some could be NAKED* they have lesser no. of IC's.

  19. subhansh! when i went to ur link and downloaded, it showed "an error has occured while loading the file". can u tell me frm where u got this link so that i cud directly go to that site? it will be of great help.

    thanks for publishing that link, maybe others can use that.

  20. @praneet
    ya...i kno..the same happened with me..cudn't get the significance of half the things..
    Glad i could help..

  21. i have Other uses of the "RAM" term as well(quite interesting)

    Other physical devices with read–write capability can have "RAM" in their names: for example, DVD-RAM. "Random access" is also the name of an indexing method: hence, disk storage is often called "random access" because the reading head can move relatively quickly from one piece of data to another, and does not have to read all the data in between. However the final "M" is crucial: "RAM" (provided there is no additional term as in "DVD-RAM") always refers to a solid-state device.

  22. I'm posting a comment with some editing which i found on

    Computer Systems Management is a full-service computer firm, specializing in hardware and software sales, installation, repairs, networking, web hosting and design. These are the things we do that all the other computer companies do.

    But there are a few things we know that they don't:

    * We know that your IT infrastructure is not just a collection of clever and often incomprehensible machines. Your computers are an integral part of your company's operation.

    * We know that the way in which your computers are installed and operate affect the efficiency and profitability of your entire enterprise.

    * We know that you have the right to understand as much or as little about your computers as you want, and that it is our responsibility to provide you with the information you need to make informed decisions about IT, even though you may not be a technical expert.

    * We know that integrating IT into the rest of your organization requires both a 'big-picture' outlook and a long-term view, not just short term fixes.

    * We know that customer service is as important as our technical skills.

  23. @Manik..
    Gr8 post...but cudn't really saw a physical difference between SD-RAM and DDR1....could u??

  24. Hey people just like Arjun mentioned CPU-Z, there is also a great little software called Speccy which gives all the detailed info on the hardware. You can download it from:

  25. @Apoorv..saw dat..its gr8..jus sumtimes wonder if dese utilities take the info..from the bios..or they have sum coding of their own to dig all this info out of the CPU...pretty kewl,,

    @all..hey just so sorry for using dis slang nd short hands...if ne1 faces ne problem understandin..plz lemme kno..
    and i just sumtimes make dese typing errors nd hav sum other bugs in my control ova ma pardon me guyz..(@MANIK..I MEANT COULDN'T REALLY SEE A DIFFERENCE..WROTE SAW..LOL.SORRY.)

  26. "P4I45GV" R5.0-is a code that i have been given by TA to search for its motherboard features and some information about it so here it is:

    It is having a Socket 478 for Intel® P4 processor including Intel® 845GV chipset which is Worldwide Patent - ASRock A.G.I. 8X and A gift for VGA upgrade on i845GV FSB 533/400MHz, DDR 333/266 .it Supports Hyper-Threading Technology with Integrated Intel® Extreme Graphics .this motherboard is ASROCK I/O - default 4 ready-to-use USB 2.0 ports on rear panel, default Game/MIDI port.5.1 Channel audio.
    default 10/100 Ethernet PCI LAN.interesting part is Multi-languages Quick Installation Guide.Bundle CD includes Anti Virus Software, ASRock PC DIY Live Demo, Audio Player, etc..

  27. Please create new posts rather than adding to the comments. Comment on the post only if your comment is relevant to that discussion/post. If it's something new, please create a new post.

  28. @Arjun
    I've not been added as a user..or a contributor as it's said..Plz add me soon if u have the authority..I need to post something related to the utilities like cpu-z and others
    Arjun Ahuja

  29. You have already been sent an invite to your GMail address that you'd provided. Please check your email account.

  30. @Praneet
    You can't exactly run Linux in windows as an application, but you can run it in a virtual machine. A virtual machine is a software which emulates a full fledged machines environment while still running as an application on your "host" OS.

    Download VirtualBox(Free) and install it. It has the ability to create virtual machines. Then download a linux distro (Ubuntu maybe?) and load it into it. From that point on whenever you want to run it just start up the virtual machine.

  31. But do u kno nythib bout hw 2 identify RAM cin d perforationsw???

  32. The difference btwn FAT file system and NTFS file system iz dat FAT is the oldest n most basic file management system

    NTFS is i think d latest file management system n iz pretty reliable den FAT cz it is basically organising the data in directories........

    4 more details in this context
    plz go to the link:

    itz really providin a better ovrview.....:)
    Himanshu Gargas

  33. for flashing a bios you can use award winflash(bios flashing utility).
    this is for those who are not confident about flashing your bios

  34. I was asked to do a blog post on PCI, PCI-X and PCIE as HW for a lab session.

  35. Samiran, you are supposed to put it on this blog.